CSS Reference Data Type

<blend-mode>

The <blend-mode> CSS data type defines the formula that must be used to mix the colors of an element with its backdrop.

A backdrop is the content behind the element—known as the source element—and is what the element is composited with. The destination element is the element that lies behind the source element, and which the source overlaps with. The backdrop is the area where the color blending is done between the source and the destination.

Backdrop Illustration
Image showing the area that defines an element’s backdrop. (Source)

The backdrop is the area where the color blending is done between the source and the destination.

A blend mode can be used to specify how an element’s background image(s) and color(s) blend together—using the background-blend-mode property, and/or how two elements blend together—using the mix-blend-mode property.

Values

normal
This is the default mode which specifies no blending. The blending formula simply selects the source color.
multiply
The source color is multiplied by the destination color and replaces the destination. The resultant color is always at least as dark as either the source or destination color. **Multiplying any color with black results in black.** **Multiplying any color with white preserves the original color.**
screen
Multiplies the complements of the backdrop and source color values, then complements the result. The result color is always at least as light as either of the two constituent colors. **Screening any color with white produces white; screening with black leaves the original color unchanged.** The effect is similar to projecting multiple photographic slides simultaneously onto a single screen.
overlay
Multiplies or screens the colors, depending on the backdrop color value. Source colors overlay the backdrop while preserving its highlights and shadows. The backdrop color is not replaced but is mixed with the source color to reflect the lightness or darkness of the backdrop.
darken
Selects the darker of the backdrop and source colors. The backdrop is replaced with the source where the source is darker; otherwise, it is left unchanged.
lighten
Selects the lighter of the backdrop and source colors. The backdrop is replaced with the source where the source is lighter; otherwise, it is left unchanged.
color-dodge
Brightens the backdrop color to reflect the source color. Painting with black produces no changes.
color-burn
Darkens the backdrop color to reflect the source color. Painting with white produces no change.
hard-light
Multiplies or screens the colors, depending on the source color value. The effect is similar to shining a harsh spotlight on the backdrop.
soft-light
Darkens or lightens the colors, depending on the source color value. The effect is similar to shining a diffused spotlight on the backdrop.
difference
Subtracts the darker of the two constituent colors from the lighter color. Painting with white inverts the backdrop color; painting with black produces no change.
exclusion
Produces an effect similar to that of the Difference mode but lower in contrast. Painting with white **inverts the backdrop color**; painting with black produces no change.
hue
Creates a color with the hue of the source color and the saturation and luminosity of the backdrop color.
saturation
Creates a color with the saturation of the source color and the hue and luminosity of the backdrop color. Painting with this mode in an area of the backdrop that is a pure gray (no saturation) produces no change.
color
Creates a color with the hue and saturation of the source color and the luminosity of the backdrop color. This preserves the gray levels of the backdrop and is useful for coloring monochrome images or tinting color images.
luminosity
Creates a color with the luminosity of the source color and the hue and saturation of the backdrop color. This produces an inverse effect to that of the Color mode.
This mode is the one you can use to create monchorome “tinted” image effects like the ones you can see in different website headers.

Examples

The following example specifies a blend mode to be used to blend the background image and background color of an element:

.el {
    background-image: url('path/to/image.jpg');
    background-color: palevioletred;
    background-blend-mode: luminosity;
}
                

Browser Support

Refer to the background-blend-mode and mix-blend-mode property entries for information about browser support.

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Last updated December 11, 2016 at 9:46 pm by Mary Lou

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